Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing

 



Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Copper

COPPER



Copper - chemical details
SymbolCu
Atomic number29
Atomic mass63.546 g.mol-1
Electronegativity1.9 (according to Pauling)
Mass volume8.9 g.cm-3 at 20C
Melting point1083 C
Boiling point2595 C
Vanderwaals radius0.128 nm
Ionic radius0.096 nm (+1)
0.069 nm (+3)
Isotopes6
Electronic configuration[ Ar ] 3d10 4s1
Energy of first ionisation743.5 kJ.mol-1
Energy of second ionisation1946 kJ.mol-1
Standard potential+ 0.522 V ( Cu+/ Cu )
+ 0.345 V (Cu2+/ Cu )
Discovered - The ancients



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Copper - Description
Copper is a reddish metal with a cubic crystalline structure. It reflects red and orange light and absorbs other frequencies in the visible spectrum, due to its band structure, so it has a reddish colour. It is malleable, ductile, and an extremely good conductor of both heat and electricity. It is softer than iron but harder than zinc and can be polished to a bright finish. It is found in group Ib of the periodic table, together with silver and gold. Copper has low chemical reactivity. In moist air it slowly forms a greenish surface film called patina; this coating protects the metal from further attack.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Copper - Industrial applications
Most copper is used for electrical equipment (60%). It is also used in construction, industrial machinery, and alloys. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/Cu-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Copper - In natural form
Copper is a very common substance, having been spread throughout the environment via natural phenomena. Humans widely use copper. The production of copper has lifted over the last decades and due to this copper quantities in the environment have expanded.

As the world's copper production is still rising, more copper is ending up in the environment. Copper can be released into the environment by both natural sources and human activities. Examples of natural sources are wind-blown dust, decaying vegetation, forest fires and sea spray. Rivers are depositing sludge on their banks that is contaminated with copper, due to the disposal of copper-containing wastewater. Copper enters the air, mainly through release during the combustion of fossil fuels. Copper in air will remain there for an eminent period of time, before it settles when it starts to rain. It will then end up mainly in soils. As a result soils may also contain large quantities of copper.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Copper - Impact on health
Copper is an essential trace nutrient to all high plants and animals. In animals, including humans, it is found primarily in the bloodstream, as a co-factor in various redox enzymes, and in copper-based pigments. However, in sufficient amounts, copper can be poisonous and even fatal to organisms.

Copper is a universally important cofactor for many hundreds of enzymes. Copper functions as a co-factor and activator of numerous enzymes that are involved in the development and maintenance of the cardiovascular system. Copper is essential for the function of reduced lysyl oxidase activity, which causes a conversion of the connective tissue element pro-elastin to elastin. A copper deficiency can result in a decrease in the tinsel strength of arterial walls, leading to aneurysm formation and skeletal maldevelopment.1 Other effects of copper deficiency are anemia (iron storage disease can result from chronic copper deficiency), poor hair keratinization and hypopigmentation.2

Long-term exposure to copper can cause irritation of the nose, mouth and eyes and it causes headaches, stomach-aches, dizziness, vomiting and diarrhoea. Intentionally high uptakes of copper may cause liver and kidney damage and even death. Whether copper is carcinogenic has not been determined yet.

There are scientific articles that indicate a link between long-term exposure to high concentrations of copper and a decline in intelligence with young adolescents. Whether this should be of concern is a topic for further investigation.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Copper - Recommended daily & maximum intake
_________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
(Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
_________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
Infants
0-6 mo
7-12 mo
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Pregnancy
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
Lactation
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
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(ug/d)
200.0
220.0

340.0
440.0

700.0
890.0
900.0
900.0
900.0
900.0

700.0
890.0
900.0
900.0
900.0
900.0

1,000.0
1,000.0
1,000.0

1,300.0
1,300.0
1,300.0
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(ug/d)
ND
ND

1,000.0
3,000.0

5,000.0
8,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0

5,000.0
8,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0

8,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0

8,000.0
10,000.0
10,000.0
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  • Cocoa products

  • Nuts

  • Organ meats

  • Seafood

  • Seeds

  • Wheat bran

  • Whole grain products
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  • Gastrointestinal distress (stomach cramps)

  • Liver damage
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.3, 4, 5, 6

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.3, 4, 5, 6



      References:
    1. Tilson, M. (1982). Decreased hepatic copper levels. A possible chemical marker for the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms in man. Arch Surg 1982 Sep;117(9):1212-1213
    2. Wildman, R., Medeiros, D., & Jenkins, J. (1994). Comparative aspects of cardiac ultrastructure, morphometry, and electrocardiography of hearts from rats fed restricted dietary copper and selenium. Biol Trace Elem Res 1994 Oct;46(1-2):51-66
    3. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    4. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    5. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    6. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.










     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing