Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing

 



Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Fluoride

FLUORINE / FLUORIDE



Fluorine - chemical details
SymbolF
Atomic number9
Atomic mass18.998403 g.mol-1
Electronegativity4.0 (according to Pauling)
Mass volume1.8*10-3 g.cm-3 at 20C
Melting point-219.6 C
Boiling point-188 C
Vanderwaals radius0.135 nm
Ionic radius0.136 nm (-1)
0.007 (+7)
Isotopes2
Electronic configuration[ He ] 2s22p5
Energy of first ionisation1680.6 kJ.mol-1
Energy of second ionisation3134 kJ.mol-1
Energy of third ionisation6050 kJ mol-1
Standard potential- 2.87 V
Discovered1886 - Ferdinand Moissan



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Fluorine / Fluoride - Description
Fluorine is a univalent poisonous gaseous halogen. It is pale yellow-green and it is the most chemically reactive and electronegative of all the elements. Fluorine readily forms compounds with most other elements, even with noble gases. It is so reactive that glass, metals, and even water, as well as other substances, burn with a bright flame in a jet of fluorine gas. In aqueous solution, fluorine commonly occurs as the fluoride ion F-.

Fluorides are compounds that combine fluorine with some positively charged counterpart.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Fluorine / Fluoride - Industrial applications
Fluorine is used in the computer industry, uranium production, and refrigeration. Fluoride is used in toothpastes and water treatment. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/F-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Fluorine / Fluoride - In natural form
Annual world production of the mineral fluorite (CaF2) is around 4 million tonnes, and there are around 120 million tonnes of mineral reserves. The main mining areas for fluorite are China, Mexico and Western Europe. Fluorine occurs naturally in the earth's crust where it can be found in rocks, coal and clay. Fluorides are released into the air in wind-blown soil. Fluorine is the 13th most aboundant element in the Earth's crust at around 950 ppm.

Soils contain approximately 330 ppm of fluorine, ranging from 150 to 400 ppm. Some soils can have as much as 1000 ppm and contaminated soils have been found with 3500 ppm. Hydrogen fluorides can be released into air through industrial combustion processes. Fluorides that are found in air will eventually drop onto land or into water. When fluorine is attached to very small particles it can remain in the air for a long period of time. In the atmosphere 0.6 ppb of fluorine are present as salt spray and organic chloride compounds. Up to 50 ppb has been recorded in city environments.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Flourine / Flouride - Impact on health
Small amounts of fluorine are naturally present in water, air, plants and animals. As a result humans are exposed to fluorine through eating, drinking, and breathing. Fluorine can be found in any kind of food in relatively small quantities. Large quantities of fluorine can be found in tea and shellfish.

The organic form of fluorine is closely involved with calcium and molybdenum in the formation of calcium fluorapatite, which contributes to healthy teeth and bones. Fluorine is essential for the maintenance of solidity of our bones. Fluorine can also protect us from dental decay, if it is applied through toothpaste twice a day. If fluorine is absorbed too frequently, it can cause teeth decay, osteoporosis and harm to kidneys, bones, nerves and muscles.

Fluorine gas is released in industry. This gas is very dangerous, as it can cause death at very high concentrations. At low concentrations it causes eye and nose irritations.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Fluoride - Recommended daily & maximum intake
_________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
(Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
_________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
Infants
0-6 mo
7-12 mo
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Pregnancy
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
Lactation
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
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(mg/d)
0.01
0.5

0.7
1.0

2.0
3.0
4.0
4.0
4.0
4.0

2.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0
3.0

3.0
3.0
3.0

3.0
3.0
3.0
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(mg/d)
0.7
0.9

1.3
2.2

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
10.0

10.0
10.0
10.0
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  • Fluoridated dental products

  • Fluoridated water

  • Marine fish
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  • Enemal fluorosis

  • Skeletal fluorosis
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.1, 2, 3, 4

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.1, 2, 3, 4



      References:
    1. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    2. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    3. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    4. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.






     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing