Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing

 



Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Magnesium

MAGNESIUM



Magnesium - chemical details
SymbolMg
Atomic number12
Atomic mass24.305 g.mol-1
Electronegativity1.2 (according to Pauling)
Density1.74 g.cm-3 at 20 įC
Melting point650 įC
Boiling point1107 įC
Vanderwaals radius0.16 nm
Ionic radius0.065 nm
Isotopes5
Electronic configuration[Ne] 3s2
Energy of first ionisation737.5 kJ.mol-1
Energy of second ionisation1450 kJ.mol-1
Standard potential- 2.34 V
Discovered1808 - Sir Humphrey Davy



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Magnesium - Description
Magnesium is silvery white and very light. It has been known for a long time as the lightest structural metal, due to itís low weight and to itís capability of forming mechanically resistant alloys.

Magnesium is very chemically active, it takes the place of hydrogen in boiling water and a great number of metals can be produced by thermic reduction of its salts and oxidized forms with magnesium. It joins together with most non-metals and almost every acid. Magnesium reacts only slightly or not at all with most of the alkalis and many organic substances. Used as a catalyst, magnesium promotes organic reactions of condensation, reduction, addition and dehalogenisation.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Magnesium - Industrial applications
Magnesium is used in furnace lining, the aircraft industry, agriculture, the printing industry, and pyrotechnics. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/Mg-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Magnesium - In natural form
Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2% of the Earth's crust by weight, and it is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater. Itís very abundant in nature, and itís found in important quantities in many rocky minerals, like dolomite, magnetite, olivine and serpentine. Itís also found in seawater, underground brines and salty layers. Itís the third most abundant structural metal in the earthís crust, only exceeded by aluminum and iron.

The United States has traditionally been the major world supplier of this metal, supplying 45% of world production even as recently as 1995. Dolomite and magnesite are mined to the extent of 10 million tonnes per year, in countries such as China, Turkey, North Korea, Slovakia, Austria, Russia and Greece.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Magnesium - Impact on health
Magnesium is an essential mineral that accounts for about 0.05% of the bodyís total weight. Magnesium is involved in many essential metabolic processes. Most is found inside the cell, where it activates enzymes necessary for the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids. By countering the stimulative effect of calcium, magnesium plays an important role in neuromuscular contractions. It also helps regulate the acid-alkaline balance in the body. Magnesium helps promote absorption and metabolism of other minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, sodium and potassium. It also helps utilize the B Complex and Vitamins C and E in the body. It aids during bone growth and is necessary for proper functioning of the muscles including those of the heart.

Magnesium is used by the body's immune system to prevent or counteract many conditions, including: Arteriosclerosis, Arthritis, Atherosclerois, Celiac Disease, Cholesterol (High LDL), Colitis, Convulsions, Diabetes, Cramps (leg), Diarrhea, Depression, Epilepsy, Fractures, Hypertension, Ischemic heart disease, Mental illness, Multiple Sclerosis, Muscle weakness, Muscular excitability, Nervousness, Neuritis, Neuromuscular Disorders, Noise Sensitivity, Osteoporosis, Parkinsonís Disease, Psoriasis, Rickets, Tantrums, Tremors (Hand), Thrombosis (Coronary),

Possible symptoms of magnesium deficiency may include: Hypertension, cardiovascular disease, Vitamin K deficiency, depressed immunity, depression, diabetes, erectile dysfunction, increased levels of stress, insomnia, fasciculation, migraine, cancer, ADHD, asthma, and allergies.

In an average diet humans need at least 200 mg of Magnesium per day. The body deals very effectively with this element, taking it from food when it can, and recycling what it already has in the system when it cannot.

There is no evidence that magnesium produces systemic poisoning although persistent over-indulgence in taking magnesium supplements and medicines can lead to muscle weakness, lethargy and confusion.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Magnesium - Recommended daily & maximum intake
_________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
(Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
_________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
Infants
0-6 mo
7-12 mo
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Pregnancy
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
Lactation
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
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(mg/d)
30.0
75.0

80.0
130.0

240.0
410.0
400.0
420.0
420.0
420.0

240.0
360.0
310.0
320.0
320.0
320.0

400.0
350.0
360.0

360.0
310.0
320.0
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(mg/d)
ND
ND

65.0
110.0

350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0

350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0
350.0

350.0
350.0
350.0

350.0
350.0
350.0
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  • Leafy vegetables

  • Meat

  • Milk

  • Nuts

  • Startches

  • Unpolished grains
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  • NONE from naturally occurring magnesium in foods

  • Supplemental excess may lead to osmotic diarrhoea
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    NOTE: The RDA column for Magnesium gives recommendations for dietary daily intake. In this case this refers to magnesium derived from food, not from supplements. The Limit column gives maximums for supplemental Magnesium. That is why the two columns appear to contradict each other.

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.1, 2, 3, 4

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.1, 2, 3, 4



      References:
    1. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    2. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    3. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    4. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.










     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing