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Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Manganese

MANGANESE



Manganese - chemical details
SymbolMn
Atomic number25
Atomic mass54.9380 g.mol-1
Electronegativity1.5 (according to Pauling)
Density7.43 g.cm-3 at 20C
Melting point1247 C
Boiling point2061 C
Vanderwaals radius0.126 nm
Ionic radius0.08 nm (+2)
0.046 nm (+7)
Isotopes7
Electronic configuration[ Ar ] 3d5 4s2
Energy of first ionisation716 kJ.mol-1
Energy of second ionisation1489 kJ.mol-1
Standard potential- 1.05 V ( Mn2+/ Mn )
Discovered1774 - Johann Gahn



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Manganese - Description
Manganese is a pinkish-grey, chemically active element. It is a hard metal and is very brittle. It is difficult to melt, but easily oxidised. Manganese is reactive when pure, and as a powder it will burn in oxygen. It reacts with water (it rusts like iron) and dissolves in dilute acids.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Manganese - Industrial applications
Manganese is widely used in the manufacture of steel, glass, disinfectants, fertilisers and ceramics. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/Mn-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Manganese - In natural form
Manganese is one of the most abundant metals in soils, where it occurs as oxides and hydroxides, and it cycles through its various oxidation states. Manganese occurs principally as pyrolusite (MnO2), and to a lesser extent as rhodochrosite (MnCO3). More than 25 million tonnes are mined every year, and reserves are estimated to exceed 3 billion tonnes. The main mining areas for manganese ores are South Africa, Russia, Ukraine, Georgia, Gabon and Australia.

Manganese is an essential element for all species. Some organisms, such as diatoms, molluscs and sponges, accumulate manganese. Fish can have up to 5 ppm and mammals up to 3 ppm in their tissue, although normally they have around 1 ppm.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Manganese - Impact on health
Manganese is one of three toxic essential trace elements, which means that it is not only necessary for humans to survive, but it is also toxic when too much is present in the human body.

Manganese is a component of some enzymes and stimulates the development and activity of other enzymes. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is the principal antioxidant in mitochondria. Several enzymes activated by manganese contribute to the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and cholesterol.The classes of enzymes that have manganese cofactors are very broad and include such classes as oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, ligases, lectins, and integrins.

The uptake of manganese by humans mainly takes place through food, such as spinach, tea and herbs. The foodstuffs that contain the highest concentrations are grains and rice, soya beans, eggs, nuts, olive oil, green beans and oysters. Note that the nutritious kernel (wheat germ) of most processed grains (white bread), which contains the most minerals and vitamins of the grain, has been removed because it is dark and "impure". After absorption in the human body manganese will be transported through the blood to the liver, the kidneys, the pancreas and the endocrine glands.

Symptoms of manganese poisoning are hallucinations, forgetfulness and nerve damage. Manganese effects occur mainly in the respiratory tract and in the brains. A syndrome that is caused by manganese has symptoms such as schizophrenia, dullness, weak muscles, headaches and insomnia.

Because manganese is an essential element for human health, shortages of manganese can have the following effects:
  • Birth defects
  • Blood clotting
  • Cholesterol (levels too low)
  • Glucose intolerance
  • Changes of hair colour
  • Neurological symptoms
  • Obesity
  • Skin problems
  • Skeleton disorders




  • Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


    Manganese - Recommended daily & maximum intake
    _________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
    (Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
    Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
    _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
    Infants
    0-6 mo
    7-12 mo
    Children
    1-3 y
    4-8 y
    Males
    9-13 y
    14-18 y
    19-30 y
    31-50 y
    50-70 y
    > 70 y
    Females
    9-13 y
    14-18 y
    19-30 y
    31-50 y
    50-70 y
    > 70 y
    Pregnancy
    < 19 y
    19-30 y
    31+ y
    Lactation
    < 19 y
    19-30 y
    31+ y
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    (mg/d)
    0.003
    0.600

    1.2
    1.5

    1.9
    2.2
    2.3
    2.3
    2.3
    2.3

    1.6
    1.6
    1.8
    1.8
    1.8
    1.8

    2.0
    2.0
    2.0

    2.6
    2.6
    2.6
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    (mg/d)
    ND
    ND

    2.0
    3.0

    6.0
    9.0
    11.0
    11.0
    11.0
    11.0

    6.0
    9.0
    11.0
    11.0
    11.0
    11.0

    9.0
    11.0
    11.0

    9.0
    11.0
    11.0
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  • Legumes

  • Nuts

  • Whole grains
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  • Elevated blood concentration

  • Neurotoxicity (poisoning of the nervous system)
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.1, 2, 3, 4

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.1, 2, 3, 4



      References:
    1. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    2. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    3. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    4. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.










     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing