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Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing

 



Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Nickel

NICKEL



Nickel - chemical details
SymbolNi
Atomic number28
Atomic mass58.71 g.mol-1
Electronegativity1.8 (according to Pauling)
Density8.9 g.cm-3 at 20C
Melting point1453 C
Boiling point2913 C
Vanderwaals radius0.124 nm
Ionic radius0.069 nm (+2)
0.06 nm (+3)
Isotopes10
Electronic configuration[ Ar ] 3d8 4s2
Energy of first ionisation735 kJ.mol-1
Energy of second ionisation1753 kJ.mol-1
Energy of third ionisation3387 kJ.mol-1
Standard potential- 0.25 V
Discovered1751 - Alex Constedt



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Nickel - Description
Nickel is a silvery-white, hard, malleable, and ductile metal. It is of the iron group, and it can take on a high polish. It is a fairly good conductor of heat and electricity. In its familiar compounds nickel is bivalent, although it assumes other valences. It also forms a number of complex compounds. Most nickel compounds are blue or green. Nickel dissolves slowly in dilute acids.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Nickel - Industrial applications
Nickel is primarily used in the preparation of alloys (such as stainless steel), as well as plating, rechargeable batteries and coins. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/Ni-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Nickel - In natural form
Most nickel on Earth is inaccessible because it is locked away in the planet's iron-nickel molten core, which is 10 % nickel. The total amount of nickel dissolved in the sea has been calculated to be around 8 billion tonnes. Organic matter has a strong ability to absorb the metal, which is why coal and oil contain considerable amounts. The nickel content in soil can be as low as 0.2 ppm or as high as 450 ppm in some clay and loamy soils. The average is around 20 ppm.

Nickel occurs combined with sulphur in millerite, with arsenic in the mineral niccolite, and with arsenic and sulphur in nickel glance. Nickel is mostly extracted from iron-nickel sulphides, such as pentlandite. The metal is mined in Russia, Australia, New Caledonia, Cuba, Canada and South Africa. Annual production exceeds 500.000 tonnes, and easily workable reserves will last at least 150 years.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Nickel - Impact on health
Nickel is an essential nutrient for higher animals. Although a number of cellular effects of nickel have been documented, a deficiency disease has not been described in man. Nickel is found in highest concentrations in lung, kidney and some hormone-producing tissues.

Although nickel-specific enzymes have yet to be identified in higher animals, nickel can activate or inhibit a number of enzymes that usually contain other elements. The production or action of some hormones (prolactin, adrenaline, noradrenaline, aldosterone) responds to changes in nickel concentration. Within cells, nickel alters membrane properties and influences oxidation/reduction systems. Nickel has great affinity for cellular structures such as chromosomes and ion channels, but its influence on them at normal tissue concentrations is not known.2

Urease (an enzyme which assists in the hydrolysis of urea) contains nickel. The NiFe-hydrogenases contain nickel in addition to iron-sulfur clusters. Such [NiFe]-hydrogenases characteristically oxidise H2. A nickel-tetrapyrrole coenzyme, F430, is present in the methyl coenzyme M reductase which powers methanogenic archaea. One of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase enzymes consists of an Fe-Ni-S cluster.2 Other nickel- containing enzymes include a class of superoxide dismutase3 and a glyoxalase.4

Foodstuffs naturally contain small amounts of nickel. Chocolate and fats are known to contain severely high quantities. Nickel occurs in some beans where it is an essential component of some enzymes. Another relatively rich source of nickel is tea, which has 7.6 mg/kg of dried leaves. Nickel uptake will boost when people eat large quantities of vegetables from polluted soils. Plants are known to accumulate nickel and as a result the vegetables will be the main source of nickel for most people. Smokers have a higher nickel uptake through their lungs.

Humans may be exposed to nickel by breathing air, drinking water, eating food or smoking cigarettes. Skin contact with nickel-contaminated soil or water may also result in nickel exposure. In small quantities nickel is essential, but when the uptake is too high it can be a danger to human health.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Nickel - Recommended daily & maximum intake
_________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
(Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
_________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
Infants
0-6 mo
7-12 mo
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Pregnancy
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
Lactation
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
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(mg/d)
ND
ND

ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
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(mg/d)
ND
ND

0.2
0.3

0.6
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

0.6
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0
1.0
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  • Chocolate products

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  • Decreased desirable body weight gain found in animal studies
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.5, 6, 7, 8

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.5, 6, 7, 8



      References:
    1. Kenney, M. (1995). Nickel. http://jn.nutrition.org/nutinfo/content/nick.shtml. Retrieved 23 Sep 2008.
    2. Jaouen, G., Ed. (2006). Bioorganometallics: Biomolecules, Labeling, Medicine; Wiley-VCH: Weinheim.
    3. Szilagyi, R., Bryngelson, P., Maroney, M., Hedman, B., Hodgson, K., & Solomon, E. (2004). S K-Edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopic Investigation of the Ni-Containing Superoxide Dismutase Active Site: New Structural Insight into the Mechanism, Journal of the American Chemical Society 2004, volume 126, 3018-3019.
    4. Thornalley, P. (2003). Glyoxalase I--structure, function and a critical role in the enzymatic defence against glycation, Biochemical Society Transactions, 2003, 31, 1343-8.
    5. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    6. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    7. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    8. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.










     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing