Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing

 



Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Phosphorous

PHOSPHOROUS



Phosphorous - chemical details
SymbolP
Atomic number15
Atomic mass30.9738 g.mol-1
Electronegativity2.1 (according to Pauling)
Density1.82 g/ml at 20C
Melting point44.2 C
Boiling point280 C
Vanderwaals radius1.04 (0.104 nm)
Ionic radius0.34
Isotopes7 (only 1 stable)
Electronic configuration[Ne]3s23p3
Energy of first ionisation10.118 eV (1011.8 kJmol-1)
Energy of second ionisation19.725 eV
Energy of third ionisation29.141 eV
Standard potential2.35 V
Discovered1669 - Hennig Brandt



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Phosphorous - Description
Phosphorous is a multivalent non-metal of the nitrogen group. It is found in nature in several allotropic forms, and is an essential element for the life of organisms.

There are three forms of phosphorous, white, red and black (although their colours are usually not idential to their name). White phosphorous is the one manufactured industrially. It glows in the dark, is spontaneously flammable when exposed to air and is a deadly poison. Red phosphorous can vary in colour from orange to purple, due to slight variations in its chemical structure. The third form, black phosphorous, is made under high pressure, looks like graphite and has the ability to conduct electricity.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Phosphorous - Industrial applications
Phosphorous is used in agriculture, glass manufacture, military applications, pesticides and steel production. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/P-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Phosphorous - In natural form
In the natural world phosphorous is never encountered in its pure form, but only as phosphates, which consists of a phosphorous atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. This can exists as the negatively charged phosphate ion (PO43-), which is how it occurs in minerals, or as organophosphates in which there are organic molecules attached to one, two or three of the oxygen atoms.

There are many phosphate minerals, the most abundant being forms of apatite. Fluoroapatite provides the most extensively mined deposits. The chief mining areas are Russia, USA, Morocco, Tunisia, Togo and Nauru. World production is 153 million tonnes per year. There are concerns over how long these phosphorous deposits will last. In case of depletion there could be a serious problem for world food production since phosphorus is such an essential ingredient in fertilizer.

In the oceans, the concentration of phosphates is very low, particularly at the surface. The reason lies partly within the insolubility of aluminum and calcium phosphates, but in any case in the oceans phosphate is quickly used up and falls into the deep as organic debris. There can be more phosphate in rivers and lakes, resulting in excessive algae growth.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Phosphorous - Impact on health
An essential element, occurring in tissues and foods as phosphate (salts of phosphoric acid), phospholipids, and phosphoproteins. In the body most (80%) of a little less than 1 kg of phosphorous is present in the skeleton and teeth as calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite). The remainder is in the phospholipids of cell membranes, in nucleic acids, and in a variety of metabolic intermediates, including ATP. Only about 0.1% of body phosphate circulates in the blood, but this amount reflects the amount of phosphate available to soft tissue cells.The parathyroid hormone controls the concentration of phosphate in the blood, mainly by modifying its excretion in the urine.

The amount of phosphorous that is naturally present in food varies considerably but can be as high as 370 mg/100 g in liver, or can be low, as in vegetable oils. Foods rich in phosphorous include tuna, salmon, sardines, liver, turkey, chicken, eggs and cheese (200 g/100 g).

Phosphorous is a key element in all known forms of life. Inorganic phosphorous in the form of the phosphate PO43- plays a major role in biological molecules such as DNA and RNA where it forms part of the structural framework of these molecules. Living cells also use phosphate to transport cellular energy via adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Nearly every cellular process that uses energy obtains it in the form of ATP. ATP is also important for phosphorylation, a key regulatory event in cells. Phospholipids are the main structural components of all cellular membranes. Calcium phosphate salts assist in stiffening bones.

In medicine, low phosphate syndromes are caused by malnutrition, by failure to absorb phosphate, and by metabolic syndromes which draw phosphate from the blood or pass too much of it into the urine. All are characterized by hypophosphatemia. Symptoms of low phosphate include muscle and neurological dysfunction, and disruption of muscle and blood cells due to lack of ATP.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Phosphorous - Recommended daily & maximum intake
_________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
(Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
_________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
Infants
0-6 mo
7-12 mo
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Pregnancy
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
Lactation
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
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(mg/d)
100.0
275.0

460.0
500.0

1,250.0
1,250.0
700.0
700.0
700.0
700.0

1,250.0
1,250.0
700.0
700.0
700.0
700.0

1,250.0
700.0
700.0

1,250.0
700.0
700.0
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(mg/d)
ND
ND

3,000.0
3,000.0

4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
3,000.0

4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
3,000.0

3,500.0
3,500.0
3,500.0

4,000.0
4,000.0
4,000.0
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  • Cheese

  • Eggs


  • Grains
  • Ice cream

  • Meat

  • Milk

  • Peas

  • Yoghurt
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  • Interference with calcium absorption

  • Metastatic calcification

  • Skeletal porosity (weak bones)
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.1, 2, 3, 4

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.1, 2, 3, 4



      References:
    1. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    2. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    3. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    4. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.






     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing