Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
Enjoy Life health & wellbeing

 



Minerals in Detail


Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Enjoy Life Vanadium

VANADIUM



Vanadium - chemical details
SymbolV
Atomic number23
Atomic mass50.9414 g.mol -1
Electronegativity1.6 (according to Pauling)
Density6.1 g.cm-3 at 20°C
Melting point1910 °C
Boiling point3407 °C
Vanderwaals radius0.134 nm
Ionic radius0.074 nm (+3)
0.059 (+5)
Isotopes5
Electronic configuration[ Ar ] 3d3 4s2
Energy of first ionisation649.1 kJ.mol -1
Energy of second ionisation1414 kJ.mol -1
Energy of third ionisation2830 kJ.mol -1
Standard potential-1.13 V
Discovered1830 - Nils Sefstrom



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Vanadium - Description
Vanadium is a rare, soft, ductile grey-white element found combined in certain minerals and used mainly to produce certain alloys. Vanadium resists corrosion due to a protective film of oxide on the surface. Common oxidation states of vanadium include +2, +3, +4 and +5.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Vanadium - Industrial applications
Vanadium is primarily used as a steel additive in axels, crankshafts, gears etc. For details on industrial applications and impact on the environment see www.lenntech.com/Periodic-chart-elements/V-en.htm



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Vanadium - In natural form
Vanadium is never found unbound in nature. Vanadium occurs in about 65 different minerals, among which are patronite, vanadinite, carnotite and bauxite. Vanadium occurs in carbon containing deposits such as crude oil, coal, oil shale and tar sands.

Various vanadium ores are known but none is mined as such for the metal, which is generally obtained as a by-products of other ores. The largest resources of vanadium are to be found in South Africa and in Russia. World production of vanadium ore is around 45.000 tonnes a year. Production of the metal itself comes to about 7000 tonnes per year.



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Vanadium - Impact on health
In biology, a vanadium atom is an essential component of some enzymes, particularly the vanadium nitrogenase used by some nitrogen-fixing microorganisms.

Vanadium has a significant role in inducing the production of reduced glutathione content in the liver and specific extrahepatic tissues.1 Additionally, vanadium increases the activity of the detoxifying enzyme system glutathione S-transferase in liver and in several extrahepatic tissues.2 Because of vanadium’s ability to induce an increase of detoxifying enzyme activity, vanadium might be considered a potential cancer chemopreventive agent. Vanadium appears to function like insulin by altering cell membrane function for ion transport processes, increasing insulin receptor sensitivity.3 Vanadium may also inhibit cholesterol synthesis in animals and humans resulting in decreased plasma levels.

A form of vanadium, vanadyl sulfate, seems to improve glucose control in people with type 2 diabetes.4, 5, 6, 7, 8



Chemical Details | Description | Industrial Applications | In Nature | Health Impacts | Daily Intake


Vanadium - Recommended daily (RDA) & maximum (Limit) intake
_________ _________ _________ _________________ _________________
(Maximum) Risk free intake? | Food sources? | Result of overdose?
Age Group | RDA | Limit | |
_________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________
Infants
0-6 mo
7-12 mo
Children
1-3 y
4-8 y
Males
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Females
9-13 y
14-18 y
19-30 y
31-50 y
50-70 y
> 70 y
Pregnancy
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
Lactation
< 19 y
19-30 y
31+ y
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ND
ND

ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
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(mg/d)
ND
ND

ND
ND

ND
ND
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

ND
ND
1.8
1.8
1.8
1.8

ND
ND
ND

ND
ND
ND
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  • Renal lesions (kidney 'bruises') as observed in animal studies.
  • _________ | _________ | _________ | _________________ | _________________

    Explanations:

    ND = Not determinable. There is either insufficient data on adverse effects and/or concern with the body's ability to handle excess amounts. In most instances it is wise not to supplement for this particular element, but to rely on diet to provide sufficient quantities.

    RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance. May be used as a goal for daily intake. RDAs are set at a level that should meet the needs of 97-98% of all individuals.9, 10, 11, 12

    Limit = The maximum level of daily nutrient intake from all sources that is highly likely to pose no risk of adverse effects.9, 10, 11, 12



      References:
    1. Bishayee, A., & Chatterjee, M. (1995). Time course effects of vanadium supplement on cytosolic reduced glutathione level and glutathione S-transferase activity. Biol Trace Elem Res 1995 Jun;48(3):275-285
    2. Bishayee, A., Chatterjee, M. (1993). Selective enhancement of glutathione S-transferase activity in liver and extrahepatic tissues of rat following oral administration of vanadate. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg 1993;19(3):83-89
    3. Shamherger, R. (1996). The Insulin-Like Effects of Vanadium. J of Adv in Med. Vol. 9, No. 2, Summer 1996
    4. Halberstam, M., Cohen, N., Shlimovich, P., Rossetti, L., & Shamoon, H. (1996). Oral vanadyl sulfate improves insulin sensitivity in NIDDM but not in obese nondiabetic subjects. Diabetes 45: 659–66.
    5. Boden, G., Chen, X., Ruiz, J., Van Rossum, G., & Turco, S. (1996). Effects of vanadyl sulfate on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 45: 1130–5.
    6. Goldfine, A., Patti, M., Zuberi, L., Goldstein, B., LeBlanc, R., Landaker, E., Jiang, Z., Willsky, G., & Kahn, C. (2000). Metabolic effects of vanadyl sulfate in humans with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: in vivo and in vitro studies. Metabolism 49: 400–10.
    7. Badmaev, V., Prakash, S., Majeed, M., & Altern, J. (1999). Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes. Altern Complement Med. 5: 273–291.
    8. Goldwaser, I., Li, J., Gershonov, E., Armoni, M., Karnieli, E., Fridkin, M., & Shechter, Y. (1999). L-Glutamic Acid gamma -Monohydroxamate. A potentiator of Vanadium-evoked glucose metabolism in vitro and in vito. J Biol Chem 274: 26617–26624
    9. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1997). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorous, Magnesium, Vitamin D, and Fluoride.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    10. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (1998). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    11. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2000). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium, and Carotenoids.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.
    12. Standing Committee on the Scientific Evaluation of Dietary Reference Intakes (2001). Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc.Food and Nutrition Board: Institute of Medicine.






     
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    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing
    Enjoy Life health & wellbeing